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Ophthalmology is a branch of medicine dealing with the anatomy, physiology and diseases of the eye. All evaluations that purport to diagnose eye disease should be carried out by a physician. An ophthalmologist is a doctor of medicine who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of disorders of the eye, in addition to diagnosing systemic disease that manifest in eye signs or symptoms. Since ophthalmologists perform operations on eyes, they are considered to be both surgical and medical specialists. The word 'ophthalmology' comes from the Greek roots 'ophthalmos', meaning eye and 'logos' meaning word, thought, or discourse. Ophthalmology literally means 'the science of eyes'. Ophthalmology treatment in India is one of the world's best. Trained medical practioners study and practice this branch of medicine in top hospitals of the country.
Non-invasive cardiology and diagnostics looks into the detection and the treatment of heart disease wherein there is involvement of tests for evaluating and then diagnosing the disorders of the heart. A patient who has a history of heart disease, chest pain with reasons that are unknown or valvular heart comes for non-invasive evaluation that can be done through Electrocardiaogram (ECG), 2-D Colour Doppler, Peripheral Doppler, TEE Echo, Holter and Stress Echo or Stress Test.
Ophthalmology and Optometry are two different branches of medicine concerning the human eyes. Both have similarities but are not be confused with each other as they have their differences. An Optometrist works in the field of sight testing, diagnosing, correcting and treatment of vision changes. Basically, an Optometrist is an eye health care professional and not a medical doctor. The study of the field of optometry involves performing different vision and eye care tests, detecting certain eye abnormalities, prescribes for several eye care diseases and dispensing and prescribing corrective lenses. While an ophthalmologist is a certified medical doctor treating on vision and eye care. An ophthalmologist differs from opticians and optometrists in terms of training and treatment. An Ophthalmologist has completed the full training medical program and is licensed to perform surgery and medicine.
The Neuro ophthalmology is a special branch of medicine that deals large number of optic nerve disorders and neurological disorders. Many ophthalmic diseases are linked with neurologic disorders like strokes, brain tumors and multiple sclerosis. The disorder results in many visual problems such as double vision and blurred vision. Neuro Ophthalmology involves neurosurgery, neurology, Neuroradiology and ophthalmology. Generally Neuro- ophthalmology disorders requires the specialized care of physicians, neuro-ophthalmologists, radiologists, neurosurgeons and specifically general neurologists.
Also referred to as Ocular surgery, the eye surgery is performed on the eye by an Ophthalmologist. The need for an eye surgery depends on many conditions. All the treatments ranging from corrective treatments to orbital implants, provides a successful solution to eye and vision problems.
The condition of cataract affects both eyes and occurs more in adults who have crossed the age of 60. The cataract surgery procedure is very successful and safe procedure. The surgery is recommended for those who are having vision loss that is hampering their daily life. The surgery is not advisable for those who are having other eye diseases. The surgery takes about thirty minutes and is performed under minimal sedation. During the surgical procedure, an artificial lens is inserted in place of the original in order to restore vision.
A cancer that develops in the eye is known as eye cancer. It is the condition where several tumors develop in different parts of the eye. The development of the tumor starts when the cells in and around the eye grows and changes uncontrollably by forming a mass or tumor. The tumor can be both cancerous and non-cancerous. Intraocular malignancy is the cancer that develops in the eyeball.
Laser eye surgery or LASIK is done to correct the problems with astigmatism, hyperopia and myopia.. A type of refractive surgery, it is performed by an ophthalmologist. These ophthalmologists use laser to reshape the cornea of the eye so as to improve vision. The laser eye surgery eliminates the use of eye correcting glasses. The procedure is done quite faster and depends upon the seriousness of the condition. The laser eye surgery is a painless procedure and takes about 5-10 minutes to complete. The recovery period is also faster in this procedure.
Photorefractive Keratectomy (PRK) : This laser eye procedure is performed to correct astigmatism, farsightedness and nearsightedness. Mild to moderate eye conditions can be treated with this procedure. Before the introduction of the LASIK procedure, PRK was the most widely used refractive surgery procedures. The reshaping of the cornea is done by using a laser. The laser produces an ultraviolet light which is a cool pulsing beam. This ultraviolet light is used on the cornea’s surface rather than using it beneath the cornea.
Automated Lamellar Keratoplasty (ALK) Eye Surgery : The procedure is performed to correct the vision in those people who are having mild degrees of farsightedness and severe degrees of nearsightedness. The procedure is performed under local anesthesia and take about one hour to finish. Healing after the procedure is relatively quicker than the other vision repair surgeries. ALK procedure is not so popular as compared to other laser eye surgeries.
LASIK (laser in situ keratomileusis) Eye Surgery : The reshaping of the cornea is done by using a laser beneath the corneal flaps. This procedure is the most popular among all the eye surgery procedures. The Excimer laser is used to improve vision, eliminates the use of eye correcting glasses and treat refractive errors. The procedure changes the shape of the cornea.
It has been seen that one out of four teens requires vision correction. The three most common issues addressed in vision correction are nearsightedness, farsightedness and astigmatism. The refractive surgery is the procedure by which vision can be corrected. Radial Keratotomy (RK) was the first ever incision refractive procedure. There are a number of options available that helps the those people who wears contact lenses or eyeglasses. These options can eliminate the dependence on wearing corrective eye lenses or glasses.
The cause of a vision disorder is the shape of the eyeball. Refracting is the process in which the eye lens bends the light in order to focus on an image onto the retina. Misshapen eye cannot refract the light correctly. This could result in the image being in front or behind the retina, or even due to multiple focal points. The eye muscles and the eyes natural shape plays a crucial role in the eye’s ability to focus on an object more clearly. Vision disorders can be corrected done by using LASIK surgery. LASIK allows the eye to refract the light properly by focusing the image on the retina. The LASIK also corrects the shape of the eye.
The inflammation of the uvea is termed as Uveitis. Uveitis is made up of choroid, ciliary body and iris. By combining together they create a middle layer of the eye between the sclera and the retina. The growth of uveitis may be connected with autoimmune disorders, injury and infections. The condition of uveitis is very serious and may lead to permanent loss of vision. It is essential to diagnose and treat the uveitis early so as to prevent this severe condition.
Sarcoidosis is a systemic and immunological disease that includes all the body organs such as skin, lungs, muscles, spleen, lymph node and many more. This disease could involve persons of any gender and age. The disease is more common in elderly and middle-aged woman. Acute and chronic are the two forms of this disease. It has been observed that in young people, the acute form is more prevalent. The chronic form can be more commonly seen in elderly people. In acute sarcoidosis, the acute panuveitis occurs and is associated with Herrfordt syndrome and uveoparotid fever.
Cornea transplant (corneal grafting) is the process by which a diseased cornea of the patient is replaced by the donated cornea graft or tissue. The surgery can be done in total with penetrating keratoplasty and also in part with lamellar keratoplasty. In this procedure, a clear healthy corneal is placed by removing the diseased opaque cornea in order to restore the lost sight by permitting the light rays to enter with the help of the clear transplanted cornea.
An external clear covering of the eye which contains the colored pupil and the iris is termed as Cornea. If there is any damage to the cornea, then it can become swollen and can affect the smoothness and its clarity. Cornea is a very powerful refracting surface which is around 2/3 rd part of the eye. It is very essential part of the eye and is required for clear vision. It becomes a clear window to look through and its clarity is necessary for good vision. Diseases of the cornea will lead to loss of transparency, reducing the vision. The impaired functioning of the cornea can cause injury, genetic diseases, infections and malnutrition. The first line treatment comes in the form of medicine and the cornea transplant become a necessity for people losing almost 70 per cent of the vision in one or both the eyes.
The surgical process of cornea transplant does not require any hospitalization and is performed under general anesthesia. The tissue is examined thoroughly before donor corneas are used for transplant. To control the continuous blinking and eye movement, an injection is released into the eyes of the patient. Many times a surgeon also uses eye drops to numb the eye.
The surgeon then examines the concerned area to understand the requirement of the size of the donor tissue. The surgeon first removes a similar shaped button part of the tissue from the patient’s affected cornea and then places a similar shaped button from the donor tissue. This button is then sutured into a proper place. At the end, the surgeon will cover the patient’s eye with a plastic shield to protect it from being rubbed.
Corneal transplant is regarded as the highly successful organ transplant surgery. The rate of success depends greatly on the extent and nature of injury to the eye. The rate is as high as 89% with Keratoconus, 73% with Fuchs’ Dystrophy and 60-70 % with corneal scarring.